Carotid stenosis and intracranial arterial stenosis
These are complex diseases of narrowing of blood vessels that serve the brain, usually caused by hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). This stenosis may occur in arteries either outside or inside the head, and is an independent risk factor for stroke (CVA).
If narrowing is severe, surgical interventions can reduce stroke risk. Endovascular alternatives (angioplasty and stenting) may be selected for carotid stenosis under some circumstances, and should be discussed with your physician. Procedures for intracranial stenosis are uniquely endovascular, and may involve either cerebral balloon angioplasty or intracranial stenting, or both.